IP – (IP, lit.. «Internet Protocol») – routable network layer protocol stack TCP / IP. It became the IP protocol that combined individual computer networks to the global Internet. Protocol is an integral part of addressing the network. IP network segments are united into a single network, ensuring the delivery of data packets between any nodes in the network through an arbitrary number of intermediate nodes (routers).
IP addressing entails the assignment of IP addresses and associated parameters to host interfaces. The address space is divided into networks and subnetworks, involving the designation of network or routing prefixes. IP routing is performed by all hosts, but most importantly by routers, which transport packets across network boundaries. Routers communicate with one another via specially designed routing protocols, either interior gateway protocols or exterior gateway protocols, as needed for the location of the network.